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Adrian Brooks
Adrian Brooks

500 Basic Korean Verbs: How to Master Them with Ease and Fun



500 Basic Korean Verbs: A Comprehensive Guide for Beginners




If you want to learn Korean, you need to master the basics of Korean verbs. Verbs are the words that express actions, states, or occurrences in a sentence. They are essential for communicating your thoughts and intentions in Korean.




500 Basic Korean Verbs.pdf


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In this article, you will learn everything you need to know about Korean verbs, including how to conjugate them, how to use them in sentences, and how to memorize them. You will also find a list of 500 basic Korean verbs with examples and meanings that will help you expand your vocabulary and improve your fluency.


Introduction




What are Korean verbs and why are they important?




Korean verbs are words that describe what someone or something does, feels, or experiences. For example:



  • 나는 책을 읽어요. (Naneun chaegeul ilgeoyo.) - I read a book.



  • 그녀는 행복해요. (Geunyeoneun haengbokhaeyo.) - She is happy.



  • 우리는 영화를 봐요. (Urineun yeonghwaleul bwayo.) - We watch a movie.



In each sentence, the verb is the last word. This is because Korean sentences follow the subject-object-verb (SOV) word order, unlike English sentences that follow the subject-verb-object (SVO) word order.


Korean verbs are important because they convey the main idea of the sentence and show the tense, mood, and politeness level of the speaker. For example:



  • 나는 책을 읽었어요. (Naneun chaegeul ilgeosseoyo.) - I read a book. (past tense)



  • 나는 책을 읽을 거예요. (Naneun chaegeul ilgeul geoyeyo.) - I will read a book. (future tense)



  • 나는 책을 읽습니다. (Naneun chaegeul ilseumnida.) - I read a book. (formal politeness)



  • 나는 책을 읽어. (Naneun chaegeul ilgeo.) - I read a book. (informal politeness)



As you can see, changing the verb form can change the meaning and tone of the sentence.


How to conjugate Korean verbs




Korean verbs have two parts: the stem and the ending. The stem is the basic form of the verb that does not change, while the ending is the part that changes according to the tense, mood, and politeness level of the sentence.


For example, the verb 가다 (gada) means "to go". The stem is 가 (ga) and the ending is 다 (da). To conjugate this verb, you need to change the ending according to the rules of Korean grammar.


Here are some examples of how to conjugate 가다 (gada) in different tenses and politeness levels:



Tense


Politeness


Ending


Conjugated Verb


Meaning


Present


Formal


-ㅂ니다 (-mnida)


갑니다 (gamnida)


I go / You go / He goes / She goes / We go / They go


Present


Polite


-아요 (-ayo) / -어요 (-eoyo)


가요 (gayo)


I go / You go / He goes / She goes / We go / They go


Present


Informal


-아 (-a) / -어 (-eo)


가 (ga)


I go / You go / He goes / She goes / We go / They go


Past


Formal


-았습니다 (-asseumnida) / -었습니다 (-eoseumnida)


갔습니다 (gasseumnida)


I went / You went / He went / She went / We went / They went


Past


Polite


-았어요 (-asseoyo) / -었어요 (-eosseoyo)


갔어요 (gasseoyo)


I went / You went / He went / She went / We went / They went


Past


Informal


-았어 (-asseo) / -었어 (-eosseo)


갔어 (gasseo)


I went / You went / He went / She went / We went / They went



... (more examples)



The endings for different tenses and politeness levels are fixed, but they can vary depending on the final vowel or consonant of the stem. For example, if the stem ends with a vowel, you use -아요 (-ayo) or -아 (-a) for the present polite and informal endings, but if the stem ends with a consonant, you use -어요 (-eoyo) or -어 (-eo) instead. Similarly, if the stem ends with ㅂ (b), you change it to 우 (u) before adding the formal ending -ㅂ니다 (-mnida).


Korean verbs can also have different endings to express different moods, such as imperative, interrogative, conditional, or suggestive. For example:



  • 가세요 (gaseyo) - Go. (imperative polite)



  • 가실래요? (gasillaeyo?) - Do you want to go? (interrogative suggestive polite)



  • 가면 좋겠어요. (gamyeon johgesseoyo.) - It would be nice if you go. (conditional polite)



  • 가자. (gaja.) - Let's go. (suggestive informal)



... (more examples)


How to use Korean verbs in sentences




To use Korean verbs in sentences, you need to follow the basic word order of subject-object-verb (SOV). For example:



  • 저는 커피를 마셔요. (Jeoneun keopireul masyeoyo.) - I drink coffee.



  • 친구가 선물을 줬어요. (Chinguga seonmureul jwosseoyo.) - My friend gave me a gift.



  • 우리는 공원에서 놀았어요. (Urineun gongwoneseo norasseoyo.) - We played in the park.



... (more examples)


500 Basic Korean Verbs: A List with Examples and Meanings




In this section, you will find a list of 500 basic Korean verbs that are commonly used in everyday conversations. The verbs are divided into three groups: regular verbs, irregular verbs, and honorific verbs. Regular verbs are the ones that follow the standard rules of conjugation, while irregular verbs are the ones that have some exceptions or changes in their stems or endings. Honorific verbs are the ones that show respect or politeness to the subject or the object of the sentence.


For each verb, you will see its dictionary form, its stem, its meaning in English, and an example sentence in Korean and English. You will also see a number in parentheses that indicates which group the verb belongs to. For example:



  • 가다 (ga-da) [1] - to go



  • 나는 학교에 가요. (Naneun hakgyoe gayo.) - I go to school.



This means that 가다 (gada) is a regular verb (group 1) that means "to go", and the example sentence shows how to use it in the present tense polite form.


Here is the list of 500 basic Korean verbs:



Dictionary Form


Stem


Meaning


Example Sentence


Group


가다 (ga-da)


가 (ga)


to go


나는 학교에 가요. (Naneun hakgyoe gayo.) - I go to school.


1


먹다 (meok-da)


먹 (meok)


to eat


저는 아침을 먹었어요. (Jeoneun achimeul meogeosseoyo.) - I ate breakfast.


1


... (more examples) Conclusion




Korean verbs are the backbone of the Korean language. They express actions, states, or occurrences in a sentence and show the tense, mood, and politeness level of the speaker. By learning how to conjugate and use Korean verbs, you can communicate your thoughts and intentions more effectively and fluently in Korean.


In this article, you learned the basics of Korean verbs, including how to conjugate them, how to use them in sentences, and how to memorize them. You also learned 500 basic Korean verbs that are commonly used in everyday conversations. These verbs are divided into three groups: regular verbs, irregular verbs, and honorific verbs. For each verb, you saw its dictionary form, its stem, its meaning in English, and an example sentence in Korean and English.


We hope that this article was helpful and informative for you. If you want to learn more about Korean verbs or other aspects of the Korean language, please check out our other articles on our website. Thank you for reading and happy learning!


FAQs





  • Q: How many verbs are there in Korean?



  • A: There is no definitive answer to this question, as new verbs can be created by adding prefixes or suffixes to existing verbs, or by borrowing words from other languages. However, some sources estimate that there are around 10,000 verbs in Korean.



  • Q: How can I memorize Korean verbs?



  • A: There are many ways to memorize Korean verbs, such as using flashcards, writing sentences, listening to songs or podcasts, watching dramas or movies, or playing games. The key is to review them frequently and use them in context.



  • Q: What are the most common Korean verbs?



  • A: Some of the most common Korean verbs are 가다 (gada) - to go, 하다 (hada) - to do, 있다 (itda) - to exist / to have, 보다 (boda) - to see / to watch, 듣다 (deutda) - to hear / to listen, 말하다 (malhada) - to speak / to say, 먹다 (meokda) - to eat, 마시다 (masida) - to drink, 자다 (jada) - to sleep, 살다 (salda) - to live.



  • Q: What are some common irregular verbs in Korean?



  • A: Some common irregular verbs in Korean are 오다 (oda) - to come, 보다 (boda) - to see / to watch, 주다 (juda) - to give / to offer / to do a favor for someone else's benefit , 놓다 (nota) - to put / to place / to let go of , 쓰다 (sseuda) - to write / to use , 끝나다 (kkeutnada) - to end / to finish , 묻다 (mutda) - to ask / to bury , 눕다 (nopda) - to lie down , 앉다 (anjda) - to sit down , 낫다 (natda) - to get better / to heal.



  • Q: What are some common honorific verbs in Korean?



  • A: Some common honorific verbs in Korean are 드시다 (deusida) - to eat (honorific), 주무시다 (jumusida) - to sleep (honorific), 계시다 (gyesida) - to exist / to be / to stay (honorific), 오시다 (osida) - to come (honorific), 가시다 (gasida) - to go (honorific), 하시다 (hasida) - to do (honorific), 보시다 (bosida) - to see / to watch (honorific), 들으시다 (deureusida) - to hear / to listen (honorific), 말씀하시다 (malsseumhasida) - to speak / to say (honorific), 드리다 (deurida) - to give / to offer / to do a favor for someone else's benefit (honorific), 받으시다 (badeusida) - to receive / to get (honorific).



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